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Cárdenas, P.; Xavier, J.R.; Reveillaud, J.; Schander, C.; Rapp, H.T. (2011). Molecular Phylogeny of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) Reveals an Unexpected High Level of Spicule Homoplasy. PLoS ONE. 6 (4), e18318.
150540
10.1371/journal.pone.0018318 [view]
Cárdenas, P.; Xavier, J.R.; Reveillaud, J.; Schander, C.; Rapp, H.T.
2011
Molecular Phylogeny of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) Reveals an Unexpected High Level of Spicule Homoplasy
PLoS ONE
6 (4), e18318
Publication
Background: The Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) is geographically and bathymetrically widely distributed. Systema Porifera currently includes five families in this order: Ancorinidae, Calthropellidae, Geodiidae, Pachastrellidae and Thrombidae. To date, molecular phylogenetic studies including Astrophorida species are scarce and offer limited sampling. Phylogenetic relationships within this order are therefore for the most part unknown and hypotheses based on morphology largely untested. Astrophorida taxa have very diverse spicule sets that make them a model of choice to investigate spicule evolution. Methodology/Principal Findings: With a sampling of 153 specimens (9 families, 29 genera, 89 species) covering the deep and shallow-waters worldwide, this work presents the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Astrophorida, using a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene partial sequence and the 59 end terminal part of the 28S rDNA gene (C1-D2 domains). The resulting tree suggested that i) the Astrophorida included some lithistid families and some Alectonidae species, ii) the sub-orders Euastrophorida and Streptosclerophorida were both polyphyletic, iii) the Geodiidae, the Ancorinidae and the Pachastrellidae were not monophyletic, iv) the Calthropellidae was part of the Geodiidae clade (Calthropella at least), and finally that v) many genera were polyphyletic (Ecionemia, Erylus, Poecillastra, Penares, Rhabdastrella, Stelletta and Vulcanella). Conclusion: The Astrophorida is a larger order than previously considered, comprising ca. 820 species. Based on these results, we propose new classifications for the Astrophorida using both the classical rank-based nomenclature (i.e., Linnaean classification) and the phylogenetic nomenclature following the PhyloCode, independent of taxonomic rank. A key to the Astrophorida families, sub-families and genera incertae sedis is also included. Incongruences between our molecular tree and the current classification can be explained by the banality of convergent evolution and secondary loss in spicule evolution. These processes have taken place many times, in all the major clades, for megascleres and microscleres.
Phylogeny, Phylogenesis
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
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Alectona Carter, 1879 (additional source)
Ancorina Schmidt, 1862 (additional source)
Annulastrella Maldonado, 2002 (basis of record)
Calthropella geodioides (Carter, 1876) represented as Calthropella (Calthropella) geodioides (Carter, 1876) (additional source)
Calthropellidae Lendenfeld, 1907 (source of synonymy)
Caminella Lendenfeld, 1894 (basis of record)
Dercitus Gray, 1867 (taxonomy source)
Dercitus (Dercitus) Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Erylus topsenti Lendenfeld, 1903 (additional source)
Exsuperantia archipelagus Carvalho & Pisera, 2019 (additional source)
Geodia canaliculata Schmidt, 1868 (basis of record)
Geodia intuta (Topsent, 1892) accepted as Caminella intuta (Topsent, 1892) (source of synonymy)
Geodia megastrella Carter, 1876 (additional source)
Geodia phlegraei (Sollas, 1880) (source of synonymy)
Geodia tuberosa (Topsent, 1892) accepted as Stelletta tuberosa (Topsent, 1892) (source of synonymy)
Geodiinae Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Nethea Sollas, 1888 (additional source)
Nethea amygdaloides (Carter, 1876) (taxonomy source)
Pachastrellidae Carter, 1875 (basis of record)
Penares Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Penares candidata (Schmidt, 1868) accepted as Penares candidatus (Schmidt, 1868) (additional source)
Penares euastrum (Schmidt, 1868) (basis of record)
Poecillastra Sollas, 1888 (additional source)
Poecillastra amygdaloides (Carter, 1876) accepted as Nethea amygdaloides (Carter, 1876) (source of synonymy)
Sanidasterinae Sollas, 1888 accepted as Ancorinidae Schmidt, 1870 (basis of record)
Sidonops Sollas, 1889 accepted as Geodia Lamarck, 1815 (source of synonymy)
Sphinctrella Schmidt, 1870 accepted as Vulcanella Sollas, 1886 (source of synonymy)
Sphinctrella aberrans Maldonado & Uriz, 1996 accepted as Vulcanella aberrans (Maldonado & Uriz, 1996) (additional source)
Sphinctrella ornata Sollas, 1888 accepted as Annulastrella ornata (Sollas, 1888) (source of synonymy)
Stelletta tuberosa (Topsent, 1892) (source of synonymy)
Stellettinae Carter, 1875 accepted as Ancorinidae Schmidt, 1870 (basis of record)
Thenea levis Lendenfeld, 1907 (additional source)
Theneidae Gray, 1872 (status source)
Thoosidae Cockerell, 1925 (additional source)
Vulcanella Sollas, 1886 (source of synonymy)
Vulcanella (Annulastrella) ornata (Sollas, 1888) accepted as Annulastrella ornata (Sollas, 1888) (source of synonymy)
Vulcanella (Vulcanella) aberrans (Maldonado & Uriz, 1996) accepted as Vulcanella aberrans (Maldonado & Uriz, 1996) (source of synonymy)
Vulcanella (Vulcanella) gracilis (Sollas, 1888) accepted as Vulcanella gracilis (Sollas, 1888) (source of synonymy)
Vulcanella aberrans (Maldonado & Uriz, 1996) (basis of record)
Vulcanella gracilis (Sollas, 1888) (source of synonymy)
Vulcanellidae C├írdenas, Xavier, Reveillaud, Schander & Rapp, 2011 (original description)
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