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WoRMS taxon details

Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891

100793  (

Parazoanthus axinellae (Schmidt, 1862) (type by original designation)


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  1. Species Parazoanthus aliceae Carreiro-Silva, Ocaña, Stanković, Sampaio, Porteiro, Fabri & Stefanni, 2017
  2. Species Parazoanthus anguicomus (Norman, 1869)
  3. Species Parazoanthus antarcticus Carlgren, 1927
  4. Species Parazoanthus aruensis Pax, 1911
  5. Species Parazoanthus atlanticus Montenegro, Hoeksema, Santos, Kise & Reimer, 2020
  6. Species Parazoanthus axinellae (Schmidt, 1862)
  7. Species Parazoanthus capensis Duerden, 1907
  8. Species Parazoanthus darwini Reimer & Fujii, 2010
  9. Species Parazoanthus dichroicus Haddon A.C. & Shackleton A.M., 1891
  10. Species Parazoanthus douglasi Haddon & Shackleton, 1891
  11. Species Parazoanthus elongatus McMurrich, 1904
  12. Species Parazoanthus fuegiensis Carlgren, 1899
  13. Species Parazoanthus haddoni Carlgren, 1913
  14. Species Parazoanthus juan-fernandezii Carlgren, 1922
  15. Species Parazoanthus lividum Cutress, 1971
  16. Species Parazoanthus swiftii (Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860)
  17. Species Parazoanthus catenularis (Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860) accepted as Bergia catenularis Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860
  18. Species Parazoanthus cutressi (West, 1979) accepted as Bergia cutressi (West, 1979)
  19. Species Parazoanthus dixoni Haddon & Shackleton, 1891 accepted as Parazoanthus axinellae (Schmidt, 1862) (Junior synonym)
  20. Species Parazoanthus gracilis (Lwowsky, 1913) accepted as Hydrozoanthus gracilis (Lwowsky, 1913) (new combination)
  21. Species Parazoanthus hertwigi Haddon & Shackleton, 1891 (unaccepted > nomen nudum)
  22. Species Parazoanthus leptoderma Cutress & Pequegnat, 1960 accepted as Epizoanthus leptoderma Cutress & Pequenat, 1960 (input error)
  23. Species Parazoanthus lucificum Cutress & Pequenat, 1960 accepted as Savalia lucifica (Cutress C.E. & Pequegnat W.E., 1960) (new combination)
  24. Species Parazoanthus parasiticus (Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860) accepted as Umimayanthus parasiticus (Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860) (Moved to genus Umimayanthus)
  25. Species Parazoanthus puertoricense West, 1979 accepted as Bergia puertoricense (West, 1979)
  26. Species Parazoanthus separatus Duerden, 1900 accepted as Parazoanthus parasiticus (Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860) accepted as Umimayanthus parasiticus (Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860)
  27. Species Parazoanthus sulcatus accepted as Isozoanthus sulcatus (Gosse, 1860) (new combination)
  28. Species Parazoanthus tunicans Duerden, 1900 accepted as Hydrozoanthus tunicans (Duerden, 1900)
  29. Species Parazoanthus adriaticus Pax (uncertain > unassessed)
  30. Species Parazoanthus cnidosus (Lwowsky) (uncertain > unassessed)
  31. Species Parazoanthus giganteus (uncertain > unassessed)
  32. Species Parazoanthus howesii Haddon & Shackleton (uncertain > unassessed)
  33. Species Parazoanthus kochii Haddon & Shackleton (uncertain > unassessed)
  34. Species Parazoanthus liguricus Pax (uncertain > unassessed)
  35. Species Parazoanthus mcmurrichi (uncertain > unassessed)
  36. Species Parazoanthus monostichus Duerden, 1900 (uncertain > unassessed)
  37. Species Parazoanthus mulleri Pax (uncertain > unassessed)
  38. Species Parazoanthus problematicus Pax & Arndt (uncertain > unassessed)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
Haddon, A. and Shackleton, A. (1891). A revision of the British actiniæ. Part II.: The Zoantheæ. <i>Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society</i>. 4 (12): 609-672. [details]   
Reimer, J.D.; Sinniger, F. (2024). World List of Zoantharia. Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: on 2024-05-24
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
2006-09-27 07:06:07Z
Martinez, Olga
2010-01-02 22:01:31Z
2011-10-04 13:36:00Z
2014-08-18 06:17:45Z

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

original description Haddon, A. and Shackleton, A. (1891). A revision of the British actiniæ. Part II.: The Zoantheæ. <i>Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society</i>. 4 (12): 609-672. [details]   

basis of record van der Land, J.; den Hartog, J.H. (2001). Actiniaria, <B><I>in</I></B>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,</i> 50: pp. 106-109 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Neave, Sheffield Airey. (1939-1996). Nomenclator Zoologicus vol. 1-10 Online. <em>[Online Nomenclator Zoologicus at Checklistbank. Ubio link has gone].</em> , available online at [details]   

additional source Colin, P.L.; Arneson, C. (1995). Tropical Pacific Invertebrates. A fieldGuide to the Marine Invertebrates Occurring on Tropical Pacific Coral Reefs, Seagrass Beds and Mangroves. <em>Coral Reef Press: Irvine, USA.</em> 1-296.
page(s): 122-126 [details]   

additional source Hyman, L.H., 1940. The Invertebrates: Protozoa through Ctenophora. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York and London : i-xii, 1-726.
page(s): 625 [details]   

additional source Morin, J.G., 1974. Coelenterate Bioluminescence. In: L. Muscatine & H.M. Lenhoff, eds, Coelenterate Biology. Reviews and new perspectives : 397-438.
page(s): 410, 414, 415, 422 [details]   

additional source Lwowsky, F.F., 1913. Revision der Gattung Sidisia Gray (Epizoanthus Auct.). Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Zooanthiden. Zool. Jb., Syst. 34 5-6: 557-614.
page(s): 560, 569-570 [details]   

additional source Muscatine, L., 1974. Endosymbiosis of cnidarians and algae. In: L. Muscatine & H.M. Lenhoff, eds, Coelenterate Biology. Reviews and new perspectives : 359-395.
page(s): 377 [details]   

additional source Dawson EW. (1992). The Coelenterata of the New Zealand region: a handlist for curators, students and ecologists. <em>Occasional papers of the Hutton Foundation, New Zealand.</em> 1: 1-68.
page(s): 49 [details]   

additional source Daly, M.M., Fautin D.G., Cappola V.A., 2003. Systematics of the Hexacorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 139 3: 419-437.
page(s): 424-425, 427-428 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Amaral, F. D.; Hudson, M. M.; da Silveira, F. L.; Migotto, A. E.; Pinto, S. M.; Longo, L. (2002). Cnidarians of Saint Peter and St. Paul Archipelago, Northeast Brazil. <em>Proceedings of the Ninth International Coral Reef Symposium.</em> 1, 567-571.
page(s): 569, 570 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Grygier, M.J. (1991). Additions to the ascothoracidan fauna of Australia and South-east Asia (Crustacea, Maxillopoda): Synagogidae (part), Lauridae and Petrarcidae. <em>Records of the Australian Museum.</em> 43: 1-46.
page(s): 30 [details]   

additional source Itô, T., M.J. Grygier & J. Honshu, J. (1990). Description and complete larval development of a new species of Baccalaureus (Crustacea: Ascothoracida) parasitic in a zoanthid from Tanabe. <em>Zoological Science.</em> 7(3), 485-515.
page(s): 498 [details]   

additional source Van Beneden, E. (1897). Les Anthozoaires de la Plankton-Expedition = Die Anthozoen der Plankton-Expedition. Ergebnisse der in dem Atlantischen Ocean von Mitte Juli bis Anfang November 1889 ausgeführten Plankton-Expedition der Humboldt-Stiftung, II. K.e.. Lipsius & Tischer: Kiel. 222 + XVIII plates pp. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 162, 163 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1913). Zoantharia. <em>The Danish Ingolf-Expedition.</em> 5(4): 1-62.
page(s): 54-55 [details]   

additional source Manuel RL. (1979) Some new records of Anthozoa from British waters. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 59:393-397
page(s): 395 [details]   

additional source Cairns, S.D., L. Gershwin, F.J. Brook, P. Pugh, E.W. Dawson, O.V.; Ocaña, W. Vervoort, G. Williams, J.E. Watson, D.M. Opresko, P. Schuchert, P.M. Hine, D.P. Gordon, H.I. Campbell, A.J. Wright, J.A.Sánchez & D.G. Fautin. (2009). Phylum Cnidaria: corals, medusae, hydroids, myxozoans. <em>in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia.</em> pp. 59-101., available online at [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Reimer, J.D.; Fujii, T. (2010). Four new species and one new genus of zoanthids (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) from the Galápagos Islands. ZooKeys, 42: 1-36.
page(s): 3, 4, 23, 29, 31, 32 [details]   

additional source Delage, Y.; Hérouard, E. (1901). Traité de zoologie concrète. Tome II – Deuxième partie. Les coelentérés. <em>Paris: Schleicher Frères.</em> 848 pp.
page(s): 665 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1911). Aktinien der Aru-Inseln. <em>Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft.</em> 33: 297-304., available online at
page(s): 300 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. 1937. Die Korallenfauna der Adria. Teil 1: Krustenanemonen. Thalassia. 2(7):3-66.
page(s): 24 [details]   

additional source Hayward, P.J. & J.S. Ryland (Eds.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. <em>Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK.</em> 627 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Herberts, C. (1972). Etude systématique de quelques zoanthaires tempérés et tropicaux. <em>Tethys.</em> Supplement 3, pp. 69-156.
page(s): 69, 72, 74, 76, 80, 81, 84, 142 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Sinniger, F.; Montoya-Burgos, J. I.; Chevaldonné, P.; Pawlowski, J. (2005). Phylogeny of the order Zoantharia (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) based on the mitochondrial ribosomal genes. <em>Marine Biology.</em> 147(5): 1121-1128., available online at
page(s): 1121, 1122, 1123, 1124, 1125, 1126, 1127, 1128 [details]   

additional source Branch, G. M.; Griffiths, C. L.; Branch, M. L.; Beckley, L. F. (2008). Two Oceans: A guide to the marine life of southern Africa. <em>Struik Publishers.</em> 368: pp.
page(s): 16 [details]   

additional source Gosliner, T. M.; Behrens, D. W.; Williams, G. C. (1996). Coral Reef Animals of the Indo-Pacific. Sea Challengers, Monterey, 314 pp (Bryozoa p.243-248)
page(s): 66 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. et al. (2000). Semper’s (zoanthid) larvae: pelagic life, parentage and other problems. Hydrobiologia, 440: 191-198
page(s): 1-3, 7 [details]   

additional source Kaplan, E. H. (1982). A Field Guide to Coral Reefs: Caribbean and Florida. <em>Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.</em> pp 289.
page(s): 76-77, 125, 246 [details]   

additional source Fossa, S. A.; Nilsen, A. J. (1998). The Modern Coral Reef Aquarium. <em>Birgit Schmettkamp Verlag, Bornheim, Germany.</em> volume 2, pp 479.
page(s): 266, 269, 275, 276 [details]   

additional source Menon, K. R. (1927). Subclass Zoantharia (except Scleractiniae). Bulletin of Madras Government Museum (Natural History Section), 1(1): 31-40
page(s): 32, 33 [details]   

additional source Duerden, J. E. (1902). Report on the actinians of Porto Rico [Investigations of the aquatic resources and fisheries of Porto Rico by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer Fish Hawk in 1899]. Bulletin of the U.S. Fisheries Commission, 20, 2, 323-374
page(s): 331 [details]   

additional source Hoover, J. P. (1998). Hawaii's Sea Creatures. Mutual Publishing. Honolulu., edition 1st, pp. 366.
page(s): 46 [details]   

additional source Pawlik, J. R.; Chanas, B.; Toonen, R. J.; Fenical, W. H. (1995). Defences of Caribbean sponges against predatory reef fish. I. Chemical deterrency. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 127, 183-194
page(s): 183, 184, 188 [details]   

additional source McMurrich, J. P. (1905). A Revision of the Duchassaing and Michelotti Actinian Types in the Museum of Natural History, Turin. Bollettino del Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata, 20(494): 1-23
page(s): 19 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Müller, I. (1955). Gli Antozoi del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Trieste Parte I: Antipatharia, Ceriantharia, Zoantharia, Actiniaria, Alcyonaria, e Pennatularia. Atti del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Trieste, 20(7-8): 103-129
page(s): 111-112 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Müller, I. (1962). Die Anthozoenfauna der Adria / Fauna antozoa Jadrana. Fauna et Flora Adriatica, 3, 1-343
page(s): 111-112 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1987). Ordre des Zoanthaires. Masson. Paris., pp. 783-810
page(s): 801, 804, 805, 806 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1972). Contribution à l'étude écologique de quelques zoanthaires tempérés et tropicaux. Marine Biology, 13, 127-136
page(s): 129 [details]   

additional source Muirhead, A. M.; Ryland, J. S. (1984). Order Zoanthidea. Australian Coral Reef Society. Brisbane., edition 2nd, pp. 29-33
page(s): 29, 30 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1934). Anthozoa (Teil I. Allgemeines, Ceriantharia, Antipatharia, Zoantharia, Madreporaria). Tierwelt der Nord- und Ostee, 26, 39-53
page(s): 40, 43, 46, 47, 48, 51 [details]   

additional source Seifert, R. (1928). Die Nesselkapseln der Zoantharien und ihre differentialdiagnostische Bedeutung. Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere, 55, 419-500
page(s): 419, 420, 427, 497-498 [details]   

additional source Walsh, G. E. (1967). An Annotated Bibliography of the Families Zoanthidae, Epizoanthidae, and Parazoanthidae (Coelenterata, Zoantharia). Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology. Honolulu., pp. 77.
page(s): 2, 51-56 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. (1997). Reproduction in Zoanthidea (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 31(1-3): 177-188
page(s): 178, 179, 181 [details]   

additional source Roule, L. (1900). Description d'une nouvelle espèce Méditerranéenne de zoanthidé, commensale des pagures (Palythoa-Gemmaria-Paguricola). Bulletin de la Societé Zoologique de France, 25, 120-125
page(s): 125 [details]   

additional source Roule, L. (1900). Sur les genres Palythoa et Epizoanthus. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 131, 279-281
page(s): 280 [details]   

additional source den Hartog, J. C. (1997). The sea anemone fauna of Indonesian coral reefs. Periplus Editions. Republic of Singapore., chapter Box 8.2, volume 7, pp. 351-370
page(s): 362 [details]   

additional source Allen, G. R.; Steene, R. (1994). Indo-Pacific Coral Reef Field Guide. Tropical Reef Research. Singapore., edition 1st, pp. 378.
page(s): 63 [details]   

additional source Ates, R. M. L. (1995). Colonial anemones - Zoanthiniaria. A review for the seriously interested marine aquarist. Aquarium Frontiers, Spring 1995, 10-13
page(s): 10-13 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1895). Ueber die gattung Gerardia Lac.-Duth. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1895(5): 319-334
page(s): 319, 325 [details]   

additional source Duerden, J. E. (1896). Zoanthidæ at Port Henderson. Journal of the Institute of Jamaica, 2(3): 285-287
page(s): 286 [details]   

additional source Fosså, S. A.; Nilsen, A. J. (1995). Korallenriff-Aquarium, 4. Nesseltiere in Korallenriff und für das Korallenriff-Aquarium. Birgit Schmettkamp Verlag. Bornheim, Germany., edition 1st, volume 4, pp. 447.
page(s): 255, 261, 262, 263 [details]   

additional source Frische, J. (1991). Flächenwüchsige Aquarienpfleglinge. Das Aquarium, 261, 33-37
page(s): 31, 32 [details]   

additional source Duerden, J. E. (1898). The geographical distribution of the Actiniaria of Jamaica. Natural Science, 12(72): 100-105
page(s): 103 [details]   

additional source Castro, C. B.; Echeverría, C. A.; Pires, D. de Oliveira; Fonseca, C. G. (1999). Distribuição do bentos (Cnidaria e Echinodermata) em costões rochosos da Baía da Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. PPGE-UFRJ. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil., volume VII, pp. 179-193
page(s): 183, 184 [details]   

additional source Cutress, C. E.; West, D. A. (1973). The symbiotic zoanthids of Puerto Rico with observations on their biology. Proceedings of the Association of Island Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean, 9, 23
page(s): 23 [details]   

additional source DeFelice, R.; Minton, D.; Godwin, L. S. (2002). Records of Shallow-Water Marine Invertebrates from French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, with a Note on Noningenous Species: Report to U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Bishop Museum. Honolulu, Hawaii., pp. 78.
page(s): 26, 52 [details]   

additional source Megina, C.; Conradi, M.; Piraino, S. (2003). Biodiversity, life cycles, and reproductive biology of deep-sea cnidarians. Berichte zur Polarforschung, 470, 108-112
page(s): 110 [details]   

additional source Hoffmann, K.; Hermanns-Clausen, M.; Buhl, C.; Büchler, M. W.; Schemmer, P.; Mebs, D.; Kauferstein, S. (2008). A case of palytoxin poisoning due to contact with zoanthid corals through a skin injury. Toxicon, 51, 1535-1537
page(s): 1535-1537 [details]   

additional source Ocaña, O.; Brito, A. (2004). A review of Gerardiidae (Anthozoa: Zoantharia) from the Macronesian Islands and the Mediterranean Sea with the description of a new species. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias, 15(3-4): 159-189
page(s): 160 [details]   

additional source Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.; González, G.; Herrera, R. (2007). Additions in relation to Gerardiidae from the Macaronesian waters and the Mediterranean Sea (Anthozoa: Zoantharia). Vieraea, 35, 163-168
page(s): 167 [details]   

additional source Dunn, D. F. (1982). Cnidaria. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York and other cities., volume 1, pp. 669-706
page(s): 704 [details]   
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English symbiotic colonial anemones  [details]
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