Cnidaria Anthozoa: Azooxanthellate Scleractinia from the Philippine and Indonesian regions
Cairns, S.D.; Zibrowius, H. (1997). Cnidaria Anthozoa: Azooxanthellate Scleractinia from the Philippine and Indonesian regions, in: Crosnier, A. et al. (Ed.) Résultats des Campagnes MUSORSTOM 16. Campagne Franco-Indonésienne KARUBAR. Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. Série A, Zoologie, 172: pp. 27-244
In: Crosnier, A.; Bouchet, P. (Ed.) (1997). Résultats des Campagnes MUSORSTOM 16. Campagne Franco-Indonésienne KARUBAR. Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. Série A, Zoologie, 172. Editions du Muséum: Paris. ISBN 2-85653-506-2. 667 pp.
In: Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. Série A, Zoologie. Editions du Muséum: Paris. ISSN 0078-9747
A total of 206 species of azooxanthellate Scleractinia are listed from the Philippine-Indonesian region, 176 of which are reported as new records. The newly reported specimens originate primarily from the Musorstrom 1-3 and KARUBAR expeditions, but also include specimens collected hy the "Albatross", Danish Expedition to the Kei Islands, SNELLIUS 2 Expedition, "Galathea", Mortensen's Java-South Africa Expedition, "Hakuho Maru", "Siboga", CORINDON 2, and ESTASE 2 expeditions as well as some others. In all, approximately 15,600 specimens from some 640 stations are reported, the new records including the description of 26 new species and 3 new genera. Also, 4 new combinations and 1 new name are proposed (Caryophyllia crosnieri for C. elongata Cairns, 1993, non Duncan, 1873). The distribution and bathymetric ranges of the 206 species known from the combined Philippine-Indonesian region are tabulated. 157 azooxanthellate species are now known from the Philippine Islands, with highest local diversities off Luhang Island (69 species) and the Sulu Archipelago (66 species). 174 species are known from the Indonesian region, the region with the highest diversity being the Banda Sea (138 species), specifically the Kai Islands (125 species). To a large degree, these high levels of diversity reflect the intensity of sampling effort. 65 (or 31.5%) of the Philippine-Indonesian species also occur in the Indian Ocean; 77 species (or 37%) off Japan; 67 species (or 32.5%) in the Australia and New Zealand region; and 47 species (or 23%) among the other western Pacific Islands. Qnly 11 of these species (or 5.3%) occur as far east as continental eastern Pacific, and 11 also occur in the Atlantic Ocean. These corals occur from 0 to 2570 m, the deepest being Flabellum conuis. The highest diversity of species (123 species) has been found in the 200-400 m depth range. The first example of sweeper tentacles in a deep-water coral is reported for Madrepora arbuscula. Examples of commensal/symbiotic relationships are reported to occur with petrarcid ascothoracidan crustaceans (6 coral hosts), acrothoracican cirripede crustaceans (4 coral hosts), eunicid polychaetes (4 coral hosts), and lumbrinerid polychaetes (11 coral hosts). Several cases of epifauna living on live corals are the brachiopod Discradisca stella and the gastropod Malluvium sp. attached to Truncatoflabellum mortenseni, and a stalked suberitid sponge growing on Truncatoflabellum paripavoninum.