MarBEF Data System

WoRMS taxon details

Alcyonium digitatum Linnaeus, 1758

125333  (

Lobularia digitata (Linnaeus, 1758) · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym


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Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. <em>Editio decima, reformata [10th revised edition], vol. 1: 824 pp. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae.</em> , available online at
page(s): 803 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
McFadden, C.S.; Cordeiro, R.; Williams, G.; van Ofwegen, L. (2024). World List of Octocorallia. Alcyonium digitatum Linnaeus, 1758. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: on 2024-06-18
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

original description Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. <em>Editio decima, reformata [10th revised edition], vol. 1: 824 pp. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae.</em> , available online at
page(s): 803 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

context source (BeRMS 2020) Bio-environmental research group; Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries research (ILVO), Belgium; (2015): Epibenthos and demersal fish monitoring at long-term monitoring stations in the Belgian part of the North Sea. [details]   

context source (Hexacorallia) Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record van Ofwegen, L.; Grasshoff, M.; van der Land, J. (2001). Octocorallia (excl. Pennatulacea), <B><I>in</I></B>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,</i> 50: pp. 104-105 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Gosner, K. L. (1971). Guide to identification of marine and estuarine invertebrates: Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy. <em>John Wiley & Sons, Inc., London.</em> 693 pp. [pdf copepod and branchiuran :445-455]. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Linkletter, L. E. (1977). A checklist of marine fauna and flora of the Bay of Fundy. <em>Huntsman Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews, N.B.</em> 68: p. [details]   

additional source Madsen, F. J. (1944). Octocorallia (Stolonifera - Telestacea - Xeniidae - Alcyonacea - Gorgonacea). <em>The Danish Ingolf-Expedition, Vol. V. Bianco Luno A/S.</em> 5(13): 1-65., available online at
page(s): 21 [details]   

additional source Watling, L.; Auster, P. (2005). Distribution of deep-water Alcyonacea off the Northeast Coast of the United States. In: Freiwald, A., R.J. Murray, editors. Cold-Water Corals and Ecosystems. <em>Proceedings of the Second Deep-Sea Coral Symposium.</em> 279-296. [details]   

additional source McFadden, C.S. (1999). Genetic and taxonomic relationships among northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of the soft coral Alcyonium corallioides. <em>Marine Biology.</em> 133: 171-184.
page(s): 183 [details]   

additional source Van Soest, R.W.M.; Weinberg, S. (1980). A note on the sponges and octocorals from Sherkin Island and Lough Ine, Co Cork. <em>The Irish Naturalist's Journal.</em> 20 (1): 1-15.
page(s): 11 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. <em>Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France.</em> 307 pp., available online at [details]   

additional source Moore, H. B. (1937). Marine fauna of the Isle of Man. <em>Proceedings and Transactions of the Liverpool Biological Society.</em> 50: 1-293, maps 1-3. (Crustacea: 87-142).
page(s): 52 [details]   

additional source Gosse, P.H. (1853). A naturalist's rambles on the Devonshire coast. <em>John van Voorst, London.</em> pp. i-xvi, 1-451, pls 1-28., available online at
page(s): 76-81 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Gosse, P.H., 1860. Actinologia Britannica. A history of the British sea-anemones and corals. London: Van Voorst : pp. i-xl, 1-362.
page(s): 44, 69 [details]   

additional source Hartlaub C. (1894). Die Coelenteraten Helgolands. Vorläufiger Bericht. <em>Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen n. ser.</em> 1(1): 161-206., available online at
page(s): 201 [details]   

additional source Levinsen, G.M.R. (1893). Annulata, Hydroidae, Anthozoa, Porifera. <em>Videnskabelige Udbytte ad Kanonbaaden Hauchs, Togter.</em> 321-464.
page(s): 398 [details]   

additional source Hayward, P.J. & J.S. Ryland (Eds.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. <em>Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK.</em> 627 pp. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 803 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Grajales V.A., Aguilar C., Sánchez J. (2007). Phylogenetic reconstruction using secondary structures of Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, rDNA): finding the molecular and morphological gap in Caribbean gorgonian corals. <em>BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 90.</em>
page(s): 7 [details]   

additional source Alderslade, P. (2000). Four new genera of soft corals (Coelenterata: Octocorallia), with notes on the classification of some established taxa. <em>Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden.</em> 74: 237-249.
page(s): 240, 241 [details]   

additional source Williams, G.C. (2000). Two new genera of soft corals (Anthozoa: Alcyoniidae) from South Africa, with a discussion of diversity and endemism in the Southern African octocorallian fauna. <em>Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences.</em> 52(6): 65-75.
page(s): 70 [details]   

additional source McFadden, C. S.; Hochberg, F. (2003). Biology and taxonomy of encrusting alcyoniid soft corals in the northeastern Pacific Ocean with descriptions of two new genera (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Octocorallia). <em>Invertebrate Biology.</em> 122(2): 93-113., available online at
page(s): 94 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Verseveldt, J. (1973). On the validity of Alcyonium siderium Verrill (Coelenterata: Octocorallia). <em>Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden.</em> 46(16): 209-216, plates 1-2.
page(s): 210-212 [details]   

additional source Williams, G.C. (1992). The Alcyonacea of southern Africa. Stoloniferous octocorals and soft corals (Coelenterata, Anthozoa). <em>Annals of the South African Museum.</em> 100: 249-358., available online at
page(s): 271 [details]   

additional source Tixier-Durivault, A.; Lafargue, F. (1966). Quelques Alcyonaires des Iles de Glenan. <em>Bulletin de la Museum Nationale d'Histoire naturelle Paris, Ser. 2.</em> 38(4): 456-460., available online at
page(s): 456-457, 459, 460 [details]   

additional source Utinomi, H. (1976). A review of the Japanese species of Alcyonium, with descriptions of two new species and an almost forgotten rare species (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea). <em>Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory.</em> 23(3/5): 191-204., available online at
page(s): 191 [details]   

additional source Thorpe, L. (1928). Alcyonaria of the Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. <em>Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology.</em> 36(247): 479-531.
page(s): 499-500 [details]   

additional source Kükenthal, W. (1906). Alcyonacea. <em>Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition auf dem Dampfer “Valdivia”, 1898–1899.</em> 13: 1-111, plates 1-12., available online at
page(s): 42 [details]   

additional source Williams, G.C. (1986). A new species of the octocorallian genus Alcyonium (Anthozoa: Alcyonacea) from southern Africa, with a revised diagnosis of the genus. <em>Journal of Natural History.</em> 20: 53-63.
page(s): 61 [details]   

additional source Gohar, H.A.F. (1940). Studies on the Xeniidae of the Red Sea: their ecology, physiology, taxonomy and phylogeny. <em>Publications of the Marine Biological Station, Ghardaqa (Red Sea).</em> 2: 25-118, plates 1-7.
page(s): 36, 37, 42, 44, 47 [details]   

additional source Thomson, J.S. (1910). The Alcyonaria of the Cape of Good Hope and Natal. Alcyonacea. <em>Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.</em> 47(3): 549-589, plates 1-4., available online at
page(s): 555, 561, 571, 576 [details]   

additional source Broch, H. (1912). Die Alcyonarien des Trondhjemsfjordes. I. Alcyonacea. <em>Det Kongelige Norske videnskabers selskabs skrifter.</em> 1911 (7): 1-48., available online at
page(s): 27-31 [details]   

additional source Deichmann, E. (1936). The Alcyonaria of the western part of the Atlantic Ocean. <em>Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College.</em> 53: 1-317, plates 1-37., available online at
page(s): 5, 47, 48-49, 50, 51, 66 [details]   

additional source Opresko, D.M. & F.M. Bayer. (1991). Rediscovery of the enigmatic coelenterate Dendrobrachia (Octocorallia: Gorgonacea) with descriptions of two new species. <em>Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia.</em> 115(1): 1-19., available online at
page(s): 12 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Jaworski, E. (1938). Untersuchungen über Rassenbildung bei Anthozoen. Thalassia, 3(1): 3-57
page(s): 11 [details]   

additional source Füller, H. (1957). Exkursionsfauna von Deutschland. Wirbellose I. Volk und Wissen Volkseigener. Berlin., pp. 30-34 (485 total pages in volume).
page(s): 31 [details]   

additional source Jaworski, E. (1938). Untersuchungen über Rassenbildung bei Anthozoen. Schlesischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitdt zu Breslau. Breslau., pp. 57.
page(s): 11 [details]   

additional source Ates, R. M. L. (1997). Bloemdieren: De Zeeanemonen En Hun Verwanten Van De Nederlandse Kust. C. Moerman. Zeeanjer., pp. 31.
page(s): 9, 23, 25 [details]   

additional source Mortensen, P. B.; Buhl-Mortensen, L. (2005). Deep-water corals and their habitats in The Gully, a submarine canyon off Atlantic Canada. André Freiwald and J. Murray Roberts (eds.). Springer. Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 247-277
page(s): 248 [details]   

additional source Hickson, S. J. (1907). The Alcyonaria, Antipatharia, and Madreporaria collected by the "Huxley" from the north side of the Bay of Biscay in August, 1906. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 8, 6-14, available online at
page(s): 7 [details]   

additional source Hickson, S. J. (1930). On the classification of the Alcyonaria. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, XIV, 229-252
page(s): 235, 236 [details]   

additional source Ben-David-Zaslow, R.; Benayahu, Y. (1996). Longevity, competence and energetic content in planulae of the soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 206, 55-68
page(s): 63 [details]   

additional source Tixier-Durivault, A. (1940). Contribution a l'étude du métabolisme du calcium et du fer chez l'Alcyonium palmatum Pallas. Annales de l'Institute Oceanographique, 20(1): 311-379, plate 1
page(s): 315, 326, 339, 358 [details]   

additional source Williams, G. C. (1993). Coral Reef Octocorals: An Illustrated Guide to the Soft Corals, Sea Fans and Sea Pens Inhabiting the Coral Reefs of Northern Natal. Durban Natural Science Museum. Durban., pp. 63.
page(s): 34 [details]   

additional source Uchida, T. (1969). On a northern alcyonarian, Alcyonium pacificum Yamada. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido Imperial University, 17, 6, 397-399
page(s): 397 [details]   

additional source Dahan, M.; Benayahu, Y. (1997). Reproduction of Dendronephthya hemprichi (Cnidaria: Octocorallia): year-round spawning in an azooxanthellate soft coral. Marine Biology, 129, 573-579
page(s): 577 [details]   

additional source Gohar, H. A. F. (1940). The development of some Xeniidae (Alcyonaria) (with some ecological aspects). Publications of the Marine Biological Station Al Ghardaqa (Red Sea), 3, 27-78, plates I-V
page(s): 57 [details]   

additional source Ben-David-Zaslow, R.; Henning, G.; Hofmann, D. K.; Benayahu, Y. (1999). Reproduction in the Red Sea soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens: seasonality and long-term record (1991 to 1997). Marine Biology, 133, 553-559
page(s): 553, 557,  [details]   

additional source Benayahu, Y.; Loya, Y. (1986). Sexual reproduction of a soft coral: synchronous and brief annual spawning of Sarcophyton glaucum (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833). Biological Bulletin, 170, 32-42
page(s): 32, 40 [details]   

additional source McFadden, C. S.; Donahue, R.; Hadland, B. K.; Weston, R. (2001). A molecular phylogenetic analysis of reproductive trait evolution in the soft coral genus Alcyonium. Evolution, 55(1): 54-67
page(s): 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65 [details]   

additional source Benayahu, Y.; Achituv, Y.; Berner, T. (1988). Embryogenesis and acquisition of algal symbionts by planulae of Xenia umbellata (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea). Marine Biology, 100, 93-101
page(s): 100 [details]   

additional source Wirshing, H. H.; Messing, C. G.; Douady, C. J.; Reed, J. K.; Stanhope, M. J. (2005). Molecular evidence for multiple lineages in the gorgonian family Plexauridae (Anthozoa: Octocorallia). Marine Biology, 147, 497-508
page(s): 499, 501, 503, 505, 506 [details]   

additional source Benayahu, Y.; Loya, Y. (1983). Surface brooding in the Red Sea soft coral Parerythropodium fulvum fulvum (Forskål, 1775). Biological Bulletin, 165, 353-369
page(s): 354, 366 [details]   

source of synonymy Deichmann, E (1936). The Alcyonaria of the western part of the Atlantic ocean. Illustrated catalogue of the Museum of Comparative Zoӧlogy, available online at [details]   

subsequent type designation Mantell, G. (1822). The Fossils of the South Downs; or Illustrations of the Geology of Sussex. <em>Lupton Relfe: London.</em> 1-328, pls. I-XLII., available online at
page(s): 161 [details]  OpenAccess publication 
 Present  Present in aphia/obis/gbif/idigbio   Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 

Nontype SBMNH 360700, geounit Isle of Man [details]
From other sources
Diet Generally, anthozoans are primarly carnivorous which prey on sea urchins, gastropods, bivalves, or crustaceans that crawl or swim into their grasp. [details]

Habitat sandy, muddy, or rocky habitats; also may attached themselves to hard parts or products of other organisms (shells) [details]

Reproduction sexes are separate, but protogynous hermaphroditism also occurs (female gametes are matured before male elements in the same individual) [details]

Dutch doomansduimdodemansduim  [details]
English sea-fingersdead-man's fingersdead man's fingers soft coraldead man's fingers  [details]
French corail digitéalcyon jaunealcyon commum  [details]
German tote ManneshandNordische KorkkoralleMeerhand  [details]
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