Species of the order Mysida (Crustacea, Peracarida) are shrimp-like animals that occur in vast numbers in coastal regions of the world. The order Mysida comprises 1053 species and 165 genera. The present study covers 25 species of the well-defined Mysidae, the most speciose family within the order Mysida. 18S rRNA sequence analysis confirms that the subfamily Siriellinae is monophyletic. On the other hand the subfamily Gastrosaccinae is paraphyletic and the subfamily Mysinae, represented in this study by the tribes Mysini and Leptomysini, consistently resolves into three independent clades, and hence is clearly not monophyletic. The tribe Mysini is not monophyletic either, and forms two clades of which one appears to be closely related to the Leptomysini. Our results are concordant with a number of morphological differences urging a taxonomic revision of the Mysidae.